THE BEGINNING AND SPREAD OF WAHABISM
Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahab ( the founder of Wahabism ) born in Uyaina village near the town of Humrailmila in the Najd desert in 1111 A.H ( 1699 ) and died in 1206 ( 1792 ) . Formerly with the idea of trading, he went to Basra, Baghdad, Iran, India and Damascus, where he won the name � Shaikh an-Najdi � due to his clever and aggressive attitude. He saw and learnt a great deal at these places and set his heart on the idea of becoming a chief. He had thought it proper to found a new tariqa to reach his goal, and, in preparation for this goal, attended the lectures of the Hanbali Ulama in the blessed city of Medina and later in Damascus for some time. When he went back to the Najd, he wrote pamphlets on religious subjects for villagers. He added his own ideas which he took from the Mu�tazila and other groups of bid�a. Many ignorant villagers, particularly the inhabitants of Dar�iyya and their ignorant chief, Muhammad ibn Sa�ud, followed him. The Arabs esteemed ancestral distinctions very highly, and because he did not belong to a well-known family, he used Muhammad ibn Sa�ud as a tool to disseminate his tariqa which he named Wahabism. He introduced himself as the Qadi ( Head of the religious affaires ) and Muhammad ibn Sa�ud as the Hakim ( Ruler ) . ��������..
His father Abd al-Wahhab , who was a pious ,pure Alim in Medina , his brother Sulaiman ibn abd al �wahab and his teachers advised him to correct his ideas and advised the Muslims to avoid him, as they thought that his heretic beliefs would harm Islam from the inside in the future. Soon he started disseminating his heretical ideas openly under the name of Wahabism������..
The ignorant , the unemployed, raiders, ignoramuses, opportunists and hard �hearted soon assented to his ideas and took their part on his side and regarded the pious Muslims of the right path as disbelievers�����..
In 1143 ( 1730 ), Muhammad ibn Sa�ud and Muhammad ibn Abd al-wahhab hand in hand arrived at the conclusion that those who not accept Wahabism were disbelievers and polytheists, and that it was halal to kill them and confiscate their possessions, and publicly announced their declaration seven years later. Then Ibn Abd-al Wahab started fabricating ijtihad when he was thirty-two years old and announced his false ijtihads at the age of forty.
DESTROYING OF SHRINES AND PROCLAIM
All the shrines of as-Sahabat al-kiram, Ahl al-Bait, Awliya and Martyrs ( radi-Allahu ta�ala anhum ajma�in) except that of our Rasulullahi Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam , were destroyed when Sa�ud ibn Abd al-Aziz attacked Mecca and Medina. The grave became indistinct. Although they attempted to pull down Rasuluhhah�s shrine , too, those who took hold of pickaxes either went mad or suffered paralysis, and they were not able to commit that crime.
When they captured Medina Ibn Sa�ud assembled Muslims and, slandering them , said, �Your religion is now completed by Wahhabism, and Allah became pleased with you. Your fathers were disbelievers and polytheists. Do not follow their religion ! Tell everybody that they were disbelievers ! It is forbidden to stand and beg in front of Rasulullah�s shrine. You may only say �As-salamu ala Muhammad � when passing by the shrine. He is not be asked for intercession.�
RESPOND FROM ULAMA OF AHL AS SUNNA
Abd al �Aziz ibn Muhammad, who ruthlessly massacred Muslims in order to disseminate Wahabism, sent three Whahbis to Mecca in 1210 A.H ( 1795) . The Ulama of Ahl as-Sunna responded to them with ayats and hadiths and the Wahabite representatives could not make any rejoinder. They could not find any way out but to admit the truth.
The ulama of Ahl as-Sunna silenced the Wahabis and prepared and signed a declaration containing the ayats and hadihs which showed that Wahabism was a path different from Islam, a trap insidiously set up by the enemies of Islam to demolish Islam from the inside. The three wahabis who repented of their beliefs ratified this document. The copies of the declaration were then sent to all Muslim countries.
THE MASSACRE AND LOOTING OF THE MUSLIMS OF TA�IF
Some Meccan Wahabis went to Abd al-Aziz , the ruler in Dariyya, and told him that the representatives could not refute the Meccan ulama and that a declaration stating that their system of belief was hostility against Islam was sent to every country. Abd al- Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud and his followers , bitterly grudged against the Ahl as-Sunna, attacked Mecca in 1215. The Amir of Mecca, Sharif Ghalib ibn Musaid ibn said Effendi, resisted them. Much blood was shed on both sides. Sharif Ghalib Effendi did not allow them to enter Mecca, but the Arab tribes around Mecca accepted Wahabism. Between the two ids of the same year, Saud sent an army to the town of Taif. They oppressed and massacred Taifian Muslim women and children.
The torture of the inhabitants of Taif including women and children was committed by the order of an enemy of Islam, a ferocious brigand named Uthman al-Mudayiqi. This man and Muhsin had been sent by Sharif Ghalib Effendi to Dariyya. They were supposed to negotiate about the renewal of the earlier in order to prevent the Wahabis form besieging Medina and oppressing Muslims. But this hypocrite was a spy near Sharif Ghalib Effendi. He deceived his companion, Muhsin, on their way to Dariyya by promising him many advantages. The disclosed their thoughts to Saud ibn Abd al-Aziz in Dariyya. Saud, seeing that they were his faithful slaves, put his looters under their command. They went to the place name Abila near Taif and sent a letter to Sharif Ghalib Effendi writing that Saud and they, the two traitors, disregarded the validity of the former treaty and that Saud was preparing to besiege Mecca. Sharif Ghalib Effendi wrote answers advising them with soft words, but Uthman the ferocious, who was an enemy of Islam, tore up the letters. He attacked the Muslims sent by the Amir and defeated them.
Sharif Ghalib Effendi retreated into the Taif fortress and took measure of defense. This ferocious Wahabi encamped his army at Malis near Taif at the end of Shawal in 1217 A.H ( 1802 ). He also asked help of the vile Amir of Bisha, Salim ibn Shakban, who had a much harder stony heart full of enmity towards Islam. There ere about twenty desert shaikhs and each shaikh had about five hundred brigands in addition to one thousand under Salim�s own command.
Led by Sharif Ghalib Effendi (rahmat �Allahi alaihi ), the people of Taif bravely attacked the brigands at Malis. He put fifteen hundred looters of Salim ibn Shakban to the sword. Salim and those with him fled Malis. But they rallied together again and raided Malis. They looted the town. Sharif Ghalib Effendi went to Jidda to obtain military help. Most Taifians feared and secretly escaped with their household. Although those Taifians who took refuge in the fortress defeated the packs of Wahabis coming one after the other, they hoisted the white flag of truce, because the enemy continually received aid. They agreed to surrender under the condition that their lives and chastity would be safe. Though the enemy, too, had become weak for many of them had died or fled, the Taifian messenger, who was a base villain, though he saw the Wahabis flee, shouted after them, � Sharif Ghalib fled form fear ! And the Taifians do not have the power to resist you ! They sent me to communicate that they will surrender the fortress, and they ask you to forgive them. I like the Wahabis. Come back ! You have shed much blood ! It is not to go back without capturing Taif. I swear that Taifians will immediately surrender the fortress. They will accept whatever you want. �
It was Sharif Ghalib Efendi�s fault that Taif was lost in vain. If he had stayed in Taif, Muslim would not have suffered that doom. Since �Traitors are cowards � the Wahabis did not believe that the Taifians would surrender readily. But, seeing the flag of truce on the fortress, they sent an envoy to the fortress to investigate the situation. The Taifians, pulled the envoy up to the fortress with a rope. � Gather all your goods here and surrender if you want to save your lives, � said the envoy. All their possessions were gathered with the effort of a Muslim named Ibrahim. � This is not enough ! � said the envoy, � We cannot forgive you for this much. You should bring more ! � He gave them a note book and said, � List the names of those who do not give ! The men are free to go wherever they wish. The women and children will be put in chains. �. Although they begged him to be a little bit softer , he increased his aggression and harshness. Ibrahim, unable to be patient any more, hit him on the chest with a stone and killed him.
During this confusion, the Wahabbis attacked the fortress, thus they escaped from being hit by cannon balls and bullets. They broke the gates and entered the fortress. They killed every woman, man and child they saw, cutting even the babies in cradles. The street turned into floods of blood. They raided the houses and plundered everywhere, attacking outrageously and madly till sunset. They could not capture the stone houses in the eastern part of the fortress, so they besieged and put those houses under a shower of bullets. A Wahabite scoundrel shouted : � We forgive you ! You may go wherever you want with your wives and children, � but they did not yield. Meanwhile , the Wahabbis gathered the people, who had set out to migrate, on a hill and encircled those pure Muslim families , who had grown up amid fondling and affection and most of whom were women and children, and held them to die of hunger and thirst for twelve days, and tortured them by slandering , stoning and cudgeling. The Wahabbis called them one by one and beat them and said, � Tell us where you hide your possessions ! � and howled, � Your day of death is coming ! � to those who begged for mercy.
Ibn Shakban , after pressing the stone houses violently for twelve days and being unable to make them yield, promised that those who would come out of the houses and give up arms would be forgiven. Muslims believe him and came out, but, with their hands tied behind their back, they were drawn by Ibn Shakban to the hill were the other Muslims were encircled . Three hundred and sixty seven men together with women and children were put to the sword on the hill ( rahmat �Allahi alaihim ajma�in ). They make animals trample on the bodies of the martyrs and left them unburied to be eaten by beasts and birds of prey for sixteen days. They plundered Muslims houses and gathered all they took into a big heap in front of the gateway of the fortress and sent one fifth of the goods and the money they collected to Saud, sharing the remainder among themselves. The traitors and torrential rains swept away uncountable money and invaluable goods, and there remained little, only forty thousand gold rials, in the hands of Ahl as-Sunna; ten thousand riyals were distributed to the women and children, and the goods were sold very cheaply.
AGAINST THE HOLY QUR�AN AND HADITHS
The Wahabbis tore up the copies of the Qur�an al-karim and books of Tafsir, Hadith and other Islamic books they took from libraries, Musjids and houses and threw them down on the ground. They made sandals from the gold-gilded leather covers of the Qur�an copies and other books and wore them on their filthy feet. There were ayats and other sacred writings on those leather covers. Leaves of those valuable books thrown around were so much that there was no space to step in the streets of Taif. Although Ibn Shakban had ordered the looters not to tear up the copies of the Qur�an al-karim, the Wahabite bandits , who were gathered from the deserts for looting and who did not know the Qur�an al-karim, tore up all the copies they found and stamped on them. Only three copies of the Qur�an al-karim and one copy of the Sahih of al-Bukhari were saved form plunder in the big town of Taif.
The weather was calm during the plunder of Taif. There was no wind. A storm broke out after the bandits went away, and the wind lifted up all the leaves of the Qur�an al-karim and Islamic books and swept them away. Soon there was no piece of paper left on the ground. Nobody knew where they were taken.
Under the hot sun, the corpses of the martyrs decayed on the hill in sixteen days. The atmosphere became fetid. Muslim begged, wept and lamented in front of Ibn Shakban to permit them to bury their dead relatives. At last he agreed, and they dug two big hollows, put all the decayed corpses of their fathers, grandfathers , relatives and children into the hollows and covered them with soil. There was no corpse that could be recognized ; some of them were only half or one fourth of a body, for other parts were scattered around by birds and beasts of prey.
They were permitted to collect and bury these pieces of flesh because the bad smell bothered the Wababbis, too. Muslims searched all around and collected and buried them, too, in the tow hollows.
It was also for the purpose of insulting and taking revenge on the dead Muslims that the bandits kept the martyrs unburied until they decayed . But, as said in a couplet ,
�It will bring ascent, do not grieve that you have fallen, A building is not restored before it turns to a ruin �
The status of martyrs ( R.A. ajma�in ) in Allah�s esteem increases when their corpses are left unburied to decay and to be prey for birds and beasts.
source : Advice for the Muslim Sixth Edition �1989 Published by : Hakikat Kitabevi Waqf Ikhlas Publication Darussefaka Cad . No. 57/A PK . 35 Fatih Istanbul � Turkey
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-, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E .